LPE002 Reading Comprehension

Section 3: Reading Comprehension

Questions 1 – 6: Choose the best multiple-choice answer for each question.
All eyes will be on the historic Launch Complex 39B when the Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket lift off for the first time from NASA's modernised Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Artemis I will be the first in a series of increasingly complex missions to build a long-term human presence on the Moon for decades to come. The primary goals for Artemis I are to demonstrate Orion’s systems in a spaceflight environment and ensure a safe re-entry, descent, splashdown, and recovery prior to the first flight with crew on Artemis II.

(Excerpt from 'Artemis I - About The Mission', nasa.gov, 2022)

What is the meaning of the word “presence” in the paragraph above?

being in a specific place
offering gifts to a group of people
spending a lot of money
doing something for the first time
Put the kettle on! How black tea (and other favorites) may help your health later in life

A daily cup of tea could help you to enjoy better health late in life. However, if you're not a tea drinker, there are other things you can add to your diet. The key is flavonoids, which are naturally occurring substances found in many common foods and beverages such as black and green tea, apples, nuts, citrus fruit, berries and more. They have long been known to have many health benefits -- however new Edith Cowan University (ECU) research shows they may be even better for us than previously thought. The Heart Foundation supported a study of 881 elderly women (median age of 80), which found they were far less likely to have an extensive build-up of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) if they consumed a high level of flavonoids in their diet.

(Excerpt from ‘Put the kettle on! How black tea (and other favorites) may help your health later in life’, sciencedaily.com, 2022)

What is the purpose of the text?

To inform people where they can buy the best quality tea and coffee.
To share information about the health benefits of an active ingredient in tea and coffee.
To explain the dangers of drinking too much caffeine.
To advertise a new health food supplement.

What’s that smell? It might just be the next big thing in travel.

A dozen travellers gather around Martin Schaffner’s 16th-century painting “Christ in Limbo,” and take a deep breath. Thanks to hand-held scent diffusers these tourists are getting a whiff of smoke and sulfur to evoke the fiery gates of hell depicted in the Renaissance artwork. It’s all part of a “Follow Your Nose” tour at Museum Ulm, in Germany. By pairing artworks depicting odorous things—flower gardens, a perfume ball, or a table full of food—with reconstructed scents, the cultural centre hopes to further immerse patrons in its collection.

A growing number of museums, hotels, and fragrance experts are offering smell-based adventures to help travellers connect more deeply with destinations. Scent is the only sense that is directly linked to the memory and emotional learning centres of the brain, says Rachel Herz, a neuroscientist at Brown University and an expert on the psychological science of smell. “This makes the sense of smell really unique with respect to how we experience the world around us,” says Herz. “Our experience of scent is inherently emotional and visceral because of this neural organization.”

Though scents are powerful time machines, olfactory history has been largely overlooked. Experts are now pushing to preserve and protect smells as intangible pieces of cultural heritage—and inviting travellers to experience how complex odours can tell stories about forgotten places, traditions, and changing environments in nature.

Reconstructing scents from the past isn’t easy. To create the “Follow Your Nose” exhibit in 2022, Museum Ulm partnered with Odeuropa, a project that’s developing new methods—including artificial intelligence and sensory mining tools—to identify and preserve Europe’s heritage smells. The scents for the exhibit, produced by the perfumers at International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF), blend chemically authentic reconstructions of odours with oils and other materials that won’t harm the artworks. “Museums are controlled environments, but they don’t always foster experiences that are as rich as life,” says Cecilia Bembibre, who leads Odeuropa’s work on olfactory heritage science. “This is a missed opportunity.”

Other exhibits are harnessing the power of scent. In 2022, the Louvre in Paris launched a new series of olfactory tours connected to its still life collection; Museo del Prado, in Madrid, debuted a scent exhibit inspired by Jan Brueghel’s paintings of “The Five Senses.” “Smell can engage audiences that are not easy to engage through visual mediums,” says Bembibre. “[It could appeal] to the visually impaired or younger audiences who are looking for different experiences."

Due to climate change, some scents—and the stories attached to them—are at risk of being lost, she says. Odeuropa researchers are addressing this challenge through an “encyclopedia of smell heritage” that will be published in 2023. They’re also working with UNESCO to create policies around protecting scents. Beyond Europe, Bembibre sees opportunities to safeguard scents in underrepresented communities, ensuring that this intangible layer of cultural heritage is preserved for future generations. (Adapted from 'What’s that smell? It might just be the next big thing in travel’, nationalgeographic.com, 2022)

What is interesting about the way these visitors experience art?

They use their senses of touch and sight when inside the museums.
They get to see professional actors dress up like the characters in the paintings.
Their sense of smell is stimulated at the same time as they view the works of art.
They are given virtual reality headsets to stimulate forgotten memories.
What does the word “inherently” mean in paragraph 2?
To feel something in a normal and natural way
Related to the sense of smell
Something passed into us by our ancestors
Something that costs a lot of money
What does Cecilia Bembibre mean by “controlled environments” in paragraph 4?
Some museums smell old.
Museums are dusty places that need constant cleaning.
The air, moisture and temperature inside a museum is carefully monitored to keep art safe.
Things that are there to stop art from being stolen.
Why is Odeuropa working with UNESCO?
So that the smells in some parts of the world can be saved instead of disappearing forever.
To create new smells for museums.
To create a new exhibition where visitors use all their senses.
To rediscover smells that used to be in Europe.
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