LPE007 Reading Comprehension

Section 3: Reading Comprehension

Questions 1 – 6: Choose the best multiple-choice answer for each question.
Ayra Starr Has the Vision

Ayra Starr was raised between borders, languages, ethnicities, and principles. Growing up in the contained, conservative Nigerian capital city of Abuja differed from the relaxed serenity of her birthplace of Cotonou, Benin. Then there was lively Lagos, where she spent her teen years, which felt most like home for the model-turned-award-winning musician.

But before Starr felt at home, she was angry. When she was 13, her family told her they were moving to Lagos, and she burst into tears. Uprooted, again. Her mother, however, had a premonition of sorts. “My mom was like, ‘When we move [to Lagos], this will be the time for you to do music…," the acclaimed singer-songwriter tells Teen Vogue. "'You will be able to blow in. Lagos is a place for you to pursue your music career.’” (Excerpt from ‘Ayra Starr Has the Vision’, teenvogue.com, 2023)

What does the word "premonition" mean in the context of the passage?

A sudden change in location.
A strong feeling or belief about a future event.
The capital city of Nigeria.
Pursuing a music career.
​Can positive thinking prolong your life? Science says yes

Scientists have known for quite a while that people with strong ties to friends and family tend to live long. A team from Brigham Young University looked at results from 148 studies dating back to 1900 that investigated whether solid relationships are a lifesaver. All told, the studies included 308,849 participants and followed subjects for an average 7.5 years. At the end of that time, people with strong social connections were 50 percent more likely to be alive than those who were isolated and lonely.

According to the analysis, a satisfying social life was as beneficial for long-term survival as quitting smoking and may be even more crucial than exercise and overcoming obesity. (Excerpt from ‘Can positive thinking prolong your life? Science says yes’, nationalgeographic.com, 2023)

What is the main idea of the passage?

Strong social connections have a positive impact on life expectancy.
Smoking is as beneficial for long-term survival as a satisfying social life.
Exercise and overcoming obesity are the most crucial factors for long-term survival.
Scientists from Brigham Young University studied 308,849 participants for an average of 7.5 years.
How the dream of air conditioning turned into the dark future of climate change

In 2023, Jeep rolled out a new edition of its popular four-wheel-drive SUV. For the first time since the company introduced the car in 1986, air conditioning wasn’t an option, it was a must. This appears to be the end of an era: “The last car in the U.S. without standard air conditioning,” read the headline of an article in the automotive press, “finally gives up the fight against refrigerant.”

This summer, all across the torrid globe, air conditioning was a necessity for billions of people, though less than a third of households have it. In the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, it offered defence against not just the heat but also the eerie orange smoke from Canadian wildfires exacerbated by climate change. In Phoenix, where the temperature rose above 110 degrees for weeks on end, temporary cooling centers were a lifesaver for homeless people, though hundreds of heat-related deaths were confirmed or suspected throughout the metropolitan area. In Europe, where air conditioning is evolving from an eccentric, American-style indulgence to a standard amenity, AC offered a critical defence against a heat wave so powerful and persistent that the Europeans gave the high-pressure system causing it a name, “Cerberus,” after the mythological three-headed hellhound who guards the gates of Hades.

As temperature records were broken across the planet this summer, you could sense something shift in our relationship to air conditioning. Billions of people in the Global South and other hot zones still live without household air conditioning. And the cost of remedying that is staggering. But it isn’t just the financial challenge of manufacturing and distributing more cooling systems. The environmental costs are terrifying, too. Making internal spaces cooler for humans means making external environments hotter for all living things, with more industrial production, shipping and energy consumption, all of which contribute to the buildup of greenhouse gases.

But even in places where air conditioning has been standard for decades, including the United States (where, according to the International Energy Agency, more than 90 percent of households have artificial cooling), how the technology intersects with fundamental feelings about safety and well-being is changing. Older Americans, who can still recall the preternatural cool of movie theaters as a rare escape from the tedious heat of summer, must now consider the physical stress of hot weather as a significant determinant of mortality.

Heat’s hidden risk

Summers now last longer — well past the autumnal equinox in many places — and as hot weather spreads to more clement regions, schools must consider the effects on learning without air conditioning. A 2020 study predicted that if temperatures in the contiguous United States rise as predicted, by 2050 students will learn on average 10 percent less each year. The effects are cumulative, and students without AC in their schools, who often live in cooler regions of the country, are the most vulnerable. (Excerpt from ‘Addicted to cool‘, washingtonpost.com, 2023)

What is the main idea of the text?

The introduction of air conditioning in Jeep SUVs.
The environmental impact of widespread air conditioning use.
The rising global temperatures and the need for air conditioning.
The history of air conditioning technology.
What was significant about the 2023 edition of Jeep's SUV?
It introduced a new air conditioning system.
It marked the end of optional air conditioning in these models.
It featured a unique design.
It had the best fuel efficiency in its class.
In the second paragraph, what does "it" refer to in the sentence "it offered defence against not just the heat"?
Air conditioning
The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic
What are the consequences on students in schools without adequate cooling systems?
They perform better academically.
They are less vulnerable to heat-related issues.
They live in regions with milder climates.
Their learning is negatively impacted by rising temperatures.
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